Rain water and throughfall samples were collected at the Silent Valley forest during the two consecutive southwest summer monsoon seasons (June–September) of 1989 and 1990. All the samples were analysed for Cl−, SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and pH. The average pH of rain water was 5.31 and that of
throughfall was 6.38 indicating that the throughfall is 10 times more alkaline than the rain water. The buffering of H+ in throughfall was due to interaction with canopy. It was found that the ionic concentrations in throughfall were higher than those in rain water, except for NH4+. Enrichment of ionic components in throughfall is attributed to the interaction of precipitation with Nice Women Nike Air Presto Grey Purple
the forest canopy.
Most current discussion on the techniques for effluent control emphasise the sophisticated approach most appropriate to advanced industrial operations in prosperous environments. This paper aims to demonstrate that a more basic approach still has a valuable role to play. A series of case studies from the United Kingdom examine how the application of simple techniques were able to provide significant environmental benefits at minimal Roshe6550-Shoes Women Nike Roshe Run Bright Blue
net cost to the discharger. The examples ranged from raw materials recovery and waste recycling, to lateral thinking and the development of non polluting processes. The consequent reductions in effluent load to receiving waters have been found to be highly significant for the environment.