The central variable of theories of financial frictions—the external finance premium—is unobservable. This paper distils the external finance premium from a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model estimated on US macroeconomic data covering the period 1954 to 2004. Within the DSGE framework, movements in the premium can be given an interpretation in terms of shocks driving business cycles. A key result is that the estimate—based solely on non-financial macroeconomic data—picks up over 70% of the dynamics of lower grade corporate bond spreads. The paper also identifies a gain in fitting key macroeconomic aggregates by Significance Men Nike LunarGlide+4 Gray Green
including financial frictions in the model and documents how shock transmission is affected.
Nurses deal with planning posthospitalization care within increasingly urgent focused environments and amid competing priorities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine nurses' discharge planning efforts as these occurred in practice. Eight nurses were observed and interviewed as they cared for selected patients. Major findings indicate that nurses' expectations of patients' progress guided their discharge assessments, teaching, and planning over time. Discharge teaching was a Roshe0313-Shoes Roshe Trainers Men Black Gray Blue
prominent part of daily practice that became more specific as hospital discharge neared. A gap between observed and documented discharge
planning efforts existed, which poses significant challenges for nurses in many positions.