Abstract. This study describes the tool-use potentials of captive African and Asian elephants, Loxodonta africana and Elephus maximus, respectively, and wild African elephants and explores the ecological and evolutionary significance of this behaviour. Comparison of the types, diversity and frequency of tool use by captive and wild elephants with other known tool-using mammals is offered as a means for evaluating the evolutionary significance of tool-using behaviour. Several hypotheses concerning the origin and evolutionary significance of tool use are examined, and it is proposed that in elephants, tool use may serve as adaptations enabling these furless, large-bodied tropical land mammals to cope with ectoparasites and thermoregulation.
The labels neopopulist and/or neoliberal Roshe6172-Shoes Women Nike Roshe Run Purple Green
have been attached to Export Men Nike LunarGlide+4 Black Green Latin American political leaders in an effort to understand the post-transition to democracy experiences. This article examines the appropriateness of such labels in the Argentine context in the 1990s. It is argued that describing Carlos Menem as either neopopulist or neoliberal obscures rather than illuminates the vicissitudes along the path to establishing the institutions of liberal democracy, a commitment the Argentine electorate made in 1983. An old-style populist at heart, Menem's pragmatic embrace of the neoliberal zeitgeist can only be understood in the context of the social, political and economic upheavals of
the 1980s in Argentina.