Pharmacogenetics is the study of the effects of particular genes on the variation in drug response and pharmacogenomics is the study of the effects of the whole genome on drug response. There are many examples from anaesthesia where a genetic linkage to response is known. These include cholinesterase and suxamethonium. Genetic variation can occur at all Nike Free Sale Run 3 Men Red White stages in the pharmacological process; pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. The response to morphine can be influenced by for example, genetic variation in cytochrome P450 (pharmacokinetic) and the μ opioid Shoes Nike FS Lite Run Men Blue Provider
receptor (pharmacodynamic). Understanding and being able to screen for these genetic variations in drug response may enable a more personalized drug use with greater benefit and reduced side effects.
This paper reviews the current state of modelling and optimisation with regard to fuel cell systems design. The existing models for portable, stationary and transportation fuel cell systems are identified and characterised by approach, state, system boundary, spatial dimension and complexity or detail. The different model-based design approaches such as parametric study, single-objective optimisation and multi-objective optimisation performed using fuel cell system models are summarised. A case study on the design of a fuel cell micro-cogeneration plant is presented to illustrate the use of modelling and optimisation in generating different design alternatives that contain trade-offs between competing objectives.