We calculate the spectral width of the Stokes output of Raman fiber lasers determined by spontaneous Raman scattering. The conventional model with zero bandwidths of the pump and Stokes lines is extended so that it describes a frequency-resolved Stokes band driven by the pump wave through both stimulated and spontaneous Raman scattering. To solve the boundary value problem for the Stokes spectra, a semi-analytic method is developed which reduces the spectrally resolved problem to an equivalent conventional model based on effective mirror reflectivities. The Stokes spectra are given in closed form in terms of the mirror reflection spectra. Spontaneous Raman Shoes Nike Free 5.0 Women Purple White Aesthetic
scattering perceptibly broadens the
RFL output spectra for pump powers around the lasing Nike Free Sale Run 3 Men Black White
We predict regulatory targets of vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with conserved complementarity to the seed (nucleotides 2–7) of the miRNA. An overrepresentation of conserved adenosines flanking the seed complementary sites in mRNAs indicates that primary sequence determinants can supplement base pairing to specify miRNA target recognition. In a four-genome analysis of 3′ UTRs, approximately 13,000 regulatory relationships were detected above the estimate of false-positive predictions, thereby implicating as miRNA targets more than 5300 human genes, which represented 30% of our gene set. Targeting was also detected in open reading frames. In sum, well over one third of human genes appear to be conserved miRNA targets.