Structural modification of the synapse is a pervasive phenomenon, however, its relation to functional dynamics of the system remains an unexplored research area due to technical difficulties both experimentally and computationally. The purpose of this study was to mathematically model a hippocampal synapse, incorporating detailed morphological characteristics, to study the functional consequence of structural modifications. We showed that subsynaptic morphological alterations, as in partitioned synapses, influence synaptic transmission by altering calcium diffusion within the axon terminal, and hence, the probability of release. Furthermore, the model revealed a novel concept that functional dynamics can emerge from structural alterations.
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of preventative and controlling measures - the immune system - in order to reduce the fitness costs of parasitism. However, these measures do have associated costs. Viewing an individual's immune response to parasites as being subject to optimization in the face of other demands offers potential insights into mechanisms of life history trade-offs, sexual selection, parasite-mediated selection and population dynamics. We discuss some recent results that have been obtained by practitioners of this approach in natural and Roshe1636-Shoes Roshe Trainers Men Black Green Yellow
semi-natural populations, and suggest some ways in which this field may progress in the near future.