The use of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) for the detection of neutral organic molecules becomes possible by their derivation with specific ESI/MS tagging reagents that have either proton or metal ion binding sites. We used the neutral crown ether group in several reagents to attach a metal binding site to substrate molecules. Application of this method to steroids, amino acids, vitamin D,
fatty acids, and fullerenes is described. Besides characterization, tagged molecules can be used for studying organic reactions by ESI/MS. This work demonstrates that ESI/MS provides a unique window on fullerene solution chemistry. ESI/MS is not only an excellent tool for the analysis of biopolymers but is also useful for studying the organic chemistry of small neutral molecules.
Word learning has been extensively studied in humans. Children seem to be able to map new Roshe5794-Shoes Men Nike Roshe Run Orange Blue words onto objects with only one exposure to the referent. This ability has been called “fast mapping”( and ). Using a modified human paradigm, this paper explores two language-competent bonobos' (Pan paniscus) abilities to map new words to objects in realistic Nike Free TR Fit Men Red
surroundings with few exposures to the referents. This paper also investigates the necessity of the apes maintaining visual contact (ostensive context) with the item to map the novel name onto the novel object. The bonobos tested in this experiment were able to map new words onto objects and could do so without visual contact with the items.