R. M. Hogarth (1978, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 21, 40–46) presents an analytical model which, under certain conditions, may be useful for estimating both the number of experts to include in a staticized group and which experts. This paper reports a study of an important real-world judgment task used to evaluate (1) the extent to which the specified conditions hold and (2) the effect of violations of the conditions on the ability of the model to approximate the actual empirical validities that result from forming such groups. The results indicate that, although the specified conditions hold only moderately well, the model suggested by Hogarth provides a remarkably good approximation to the actual empirical validities of the staticized groups.
The sufferings of so many small farmers in Africa who produce on contract have been well recorded and Roshe5227-Shoes Men Nike Roshe Run Blue Yellow
analyzed, yet it seems that such production will continue to expand. Can governments and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) take any action to reduce the suffering? We Shoes Nike Free 5.0 Women Charcoal Gray Orange Cozy
examine our own experience of contract farming in Nigeria and South Africa in the context of earlier research, and draw attention to important issues which have received little attention in the literature, notably staffing of schemes, farmers' previous experience with multinational national companies
(MNCs), water control and labor issues. We make recommendations toward codes of practice which could be issued to companies, regulators and small farmers.